【AT】建筑专业常用英语词汇

A

design basis

设计依据

计划建议书planning proposals 设计任务书design order 标准规范standards and codes 条件图information drawing

设计基础资料basic data for design 工艺流程图process flowchart  工程地质资料engineering geological data 原始资料original data 设计进度schedule of design

B

stage of design

设计阶段

方案scheme, draft 草图sketch 会谈纪要summary of discussion 谈判negotiation  可行性研究feasibility study 初步设计preliminary design 基础设计basic design 详细设计detail design 询价图enquiry drawing  施工图working drawing, construction drawing 竣工图as built drawing

C

climate condition

气象条件

日照sunshine 风玫瑰wind rose  主导风向prevailing wind direction  最大(平均)风速maximum (mean) wind velocity 风荷载wind load 最大(平均)降雨量maximum (mean) rainfall 雷击及闪电thunder and lightning 飓风hurricane 台风typhoon 旋风cyclone  降雨强度rainfall intensity 年降雨量annual rainfall 湿球温度wet bulb temperature  干球温度dry bulb temperature 冰冻期frost period 冰冻线frost line 冰冻区frost zone  室外计算温度calculating outdoor temperature 采暖地区region with heating provision 不采暖地区region without heating provision 绝对大气压absolute atmospheric pressure 相对湿度relative humidity

D

general room name

用房间名称

办公室office 服务用房service room 换班室shift room  休息室rest room (break room) 起居室living room 浴室bathroom 淋浴间shower 更衣室locker room 厕所lavatory 门厅lobby 诊室clinic 工作间workshop 电气开关室switchroom 走廊corridor 档案室archive  电梯机房lift motor room 车库garage  清洁间cleaning room 会议室(正式) conference room 会议室meeting room 衣柜间ward robe 暖风间h.v.a.c room 饭店restaurant  餐厅canteen, dining room 厨房kitchen 入口entrance 接待处reception area 会计室accountant room 秘书室secretary room 电气室electrical room 控制室control room 工长室foreman office  开关柜室switch gear 前室antecabinet (ante.) 生产区production area 马达控制中心mcc 多功能用房utility room 化验室laboratory room 经理室manager room 披屋(阁楼) penthouse 警卫室guard house

E

roofing and ceiling

屋面及天棚

女儿墙parapet 雨蓬canopy 屋脊roof ridge 坡度slope 坡跨比pitch 分水线water-shed  二毡三油2 layers of felt & 3 coats of bitumastic 附加油毡一层extra ply of felt 檐口eave  挑檐overhanging eave 檐沟eave gutter 平屋面flat roof 坡屋面pitched roof  雨水管downspout, rain water pipe)(r.w.p) 汇水面积catchment area 泛水flashing  内排水interior drainage 外排水exterior drainage 滴水drip 屋面排水roof drainage 找平层leveling course 卷材屋面built-up roofing 天棚ceiling 檩条purlin  屋面板roofing board 天花板ceiling board 防水层water-proof course 检查孔inspection hole 人孔manhole 吊顶suspended ceiling, false ceiling 檐板(窗帘盒) cornice

F

wall (cladding)

墙体

(外墙板)砖墙brick wall 砌块墙block wall  清水砖墙brick wall without plastering 抹灰墙rendered wall  石膏板墙gypsum board, plaster board 空心砖墙hollow brick wall 承重墙bearing wall 非承重墙non-bearing wall 纵墙longitudinal wall 横墙transverse wall 外墙external (exterior) wall 内墙internal (interior) wall 填充墙filler wall 防火墙fire wall  窗间墙wall between window 空心墙cavity wall 压顶coping 圈梁gird, girt, girth 玻璃隔断glazed wall  防潮层damp-proof course (d.p.c) 遮阳板sunshade 阳台balcony  伸缩缝expansion joint 沉降缝settlement joint 抗震缝seismic joint 复合夹心板sandwich board  压型单板corrugated single steel plate 外墙板cladding panel 复合板composite panel 轻质隔断light-weight partition 牛腿bracket 砖烟囱brick chimney 勒脚(基座) plinth

G

floor and trench

地面及地沟

地坪grade  地面和楼面ground and floor 素土夯实rammed earth 炉渣夯实tamped cinder 填土filled earth  回填土夯实tamped backfill  垫层bedding course, blinding 面层covering, finish  结合层bonding (binding) course 找平层leveling course  素水泥浆结合层neat cement binding course 混凝土地面concrete floor 水泥地面cement floor  机器磨平混凝土地面machine trowelled concrete floor 水磨石地面terrazzo flooring 马赛克地面mosaic flooring 瓷砖地面ceramic tile flooring 油地毡地面linoleum flooring  预制水磨石地面precast terrazzo flooring 硬木花地面hard-wood parquet flooring 搁栅joist  硬木毛地面hard-wood rough flooring 企口板地面tongued and grooved flooring 防酸地面acid-resistant floor  钢筋混凝土楼板reinforced concrete slab (r.c slab) 乙烯基地面vinyl flooring  水磨石嵌条divider strip for terrazzo 地面做2%坡floor with 2% slope 集水沟gully 集水口gulley  排水沟drainage trench 沟盖板trench cover  活动盖板removable cover plate 集水坑sump pit 孔翻边hole up stand 电缆沟cable trench

H

doors,glass,windows & ironmongery(hardware)门、玻璃、窗及五金件

木(钢)门wooden (steel) door 镶板门panelled door 夹板门plywood door  铝合金门aluminum alloy door 卷帘门roller shutter door 弹簧门swing door 推拉门sliding door 平开门side-hung door 折叠门folding door 旋转门revolving door 玻璃门glazed door  密闭门air-tight door  保温门thermal insulating door  镀锌铁丝网门galvanized steel wire mesh door 防火门fire door (大门上的)小门wicket 门框door frame 门扇door leaf 门洞door opening  结构开洞structural opening 单扇门single door 双扇门double door 疏散门emergency door 纱门screen door 门槛door sill 门过梁door lintel 上冒头top rail 下冒头bottom rail 门边木stile 门樘侧料side jumb 槽口notch  木窗wooden window 钢窗steel window  铝合金窗aluminum alloy window  百叶窗(通风为主) sun-bind, louver (louver, shutter, blind) 塑钢窗plastic steel window 空腹钢窗hollow steel window 固定窗fixed window 平开窗side-hung window 推拉窗sliding window 气窗transom  上悬窗top-hung window 中悬窗center-pivoted window 下悬窗hopper window 活动百叶窗adjustable louver 天窗skylight  老虎窗dormer window  密封双层玻璃sealed double glazing 钢筋混凝土过梁reinforced concrete lintel 钢筋砖过梁reinforced brick lintel 窗扇casement sash 窗台window sill 窗台板window board 窗中梃mullion 窗横木mutin窗边木stile 压缝条cover mould 窗帘盒curtain box 合页(铰链) hinge (butts) 转轴pivot 长脚铰链parliament hinge 闭门器door closer 地弹簧floor closer 插销bolt 门锁door lock 拉手pull 链条chain 门钩door hanger 碰球ball latch 窗钩window catch 暗插销insert bolt  电动开关器electric opener 平板玻璃plate glass 夹丝玻璃wire glass 透明玻璃clear glass  毛玻璃(磨砂玻璃) ground glass (frosted glass) 防弹玻璃bullet-proof glass 石英玻璃quartz glass 吸热玻璃heat absorbing glass 磨光玻璃polished glass 着色玻璃pigmented glass 玻璃瓦glass tile 玻璃砖glass block 有机玻璃organic glass

I

staircase, landing & lift (elevator)

楼梯、休息平台及电梯

楼梯stair楼梯间staircase 疏散梯emergency stair 旋转梯spiral stair (circular stair) 吊车梯crane ladder 直爬梯vertical ladder 踏步step  扇形踏步winder (wheel step) 踏步板tread 档步板riser 踏步宽度tread width 防滑条non-slip insert (strips)  栏杆railing (balustrade) 平台栏杆platform railing  吊装孔栏杆railing around mounting hole 扶手handrail  梯段高度height of flight  防护梯笼protecting cage (safety cage) 平台landing (platform) 操作平台operating platform  装卸平台platform for loading & unloading 楼梯平台stair landing 客梯passenger lift 货梯goods lift  客/货两用梯goods/passenger lift 液压电梯hydraulic lift 自动扶梯escalator  观光电梯observation elevator 电梯机房lift mortar room 电梯坑lift pit 电梯井道lift shaft

J

building material words and phrases

建筑材料词汇及短语

bricks and tiles 砖和瓦红砖red brick 粘土砖clay brick  瓷砖glazed brick (ceramic tile) 防火砖fire brick 空心砖hollow brick 面砖facing brick 地板砖flooring tile 缸砖clinkery brick 马赛克mosaic  陶粒混凝土ceramsite concrete 琉璃瓦glazed tile 脊瓦ridge tile  石棉瓦asbestos tile (shingle)  波形石棉水泥瓦corrugated asbestos cement sheet

lime, sand and stone 灰、砂和石石膏gypsum 大理石marble 汉白玉white marble 花岗岩granite 碎石crushed stone 毛石rubble  蛭石vermiculite 珍珠岩pearlite 水磨石terrazzo 卵石cobble 砾石gravel 粗砂course sand 中砂medium sand 细砂fine sand

cement, mortar and concrete 水泥、砂浆和混凝土波特兰水泥(普通硅酸盐水泥) portland cement 硅酸盐水泥silicate cement 火山灰水泥pozzolana cement 白水泥white cement 水泥砂浆cement mortar 石灰砂浆lime mortar  水泥石灰砂浆(混合砂浆) cement-lime mortar 保温砂浆thermal mortar 防水砂浆water-proof mortar 耐酸砂浆acid-resistant mortar 耐碱砂浆alkaline-resistant mortar 沥青砂浆bituminous mortar 纸筋灰paper strip mixed lime mortar 麻刀灰hemp cut lime mortar 灰缝mortar joint 素混凝土plain concrete 钢筋混凝土reinforced concrete 轻质混凝土lightweight concrete 细石混凝土fine aggregate concrete 沥青混凝土asphalt concrete 泡沫混凝土foamed concrete 炉渣混凝土cinder concrete

facing and plastering materials 饰面及粉刷材料水刷石granitic plaster 斩假石artificial stone 刷浆lime wash 可赛银casein 大白浆white wash  麻刀灰打底hemp cuts and lime as base 喷大白浆两道sprayed twice with white wash 分格抹水泥砂浆cement mortar plaster sectioned 板条抹灰lath and plaster

asphalt(bitumen) and asbestos 沥青和石棉沥青卷材asphalt felt 沥青填料asphalt filler 沥青胶泥asphalt grout  冷底子油adhesive bitumen primer 沥青玛啼脂asphaltic mastic 沥青麻丝bitumastic oakum 石棉板asbestos sheet 石棉纤维asbestos fiber

timber 木材裂缝crack 透裂split 环裂shake 干缩shrinkage 翘曲warping 原木log  圆木round timber 方木square timber 板材plank 木条batten 板条lath 木板board 红松red pine 白松white pine 落叶松deciduous pine 云杉spruce 柏木cypress 白杨white poplar 桦木birch 冷杉fir 栎木oak 榴木willow 榆木elm 杉木cedar 柚木teak  樟木camphor wood  防腐处理的木材preservative-treated lumber 胶合板plywood 三(五)合板3(5)-plywood  企口板tongued and grooved board 层夹板laminated plank  胶合层夹木材glue-laminated lumber 纤维板fiber-board 竹子bamboo

metallic materials 金属材料黑色金属ferrous metal 圆钢steelbbar  方钢square steel 扁钢steel strap,flat steel 型钢steel section (shape) 槽钢channel 角钢angle steel  等边角钢equal-leg angle 不等边角钢unequal-leg angle 工字钢i-beam  宽翼缘工字钢wide flange i-beam 丁(之)字钢t-bar (z-bar)  冷弯薄壁型钢light gauge cold-formed steel shape 热轧hot-rolled 冷轧cold-rolled 冷拉cold-drawn 冷压cold-pressed 合金钢alloy steel 钛合金titanium alloy 不锈钢stainless steel 竹节钢筋corrugated steel bar 变形钢筋deformed bar 光圆钢筋plain round bar 钢板steel plate 薄钢板thin steel plate 低碳钢low carbon steel 冷弯cold bending 钢管steel pipe (tube) 无缝钢管seamless steel pipe 焊接钢管welded steel pipe 黑铁管iron pipe  镀锌钢管galvanized steel pipe 铸铁cast iron 生铁pig iron 熟铁wrought iron  镀锌铁皮galvanized steel sheet 镀锌铁丝galvanized steel wire 钢丝网steel wire mesh 多孔金属网expanded metal 锰钢managanese steel  高强度合金钢high strength alloy steel

non-ferrous metal 有色金属金gold 白金platinum 铜copper 黄铜brass 青铜bronze 银silver 铝aluminum 铅lead

anti-corrosion materials 防腐蚀材料聚乙烯polythene, polyethylene 尼龙nylon  聚氯乙烯pvc (polyvinyl chloride) 聚碳酸酯polycarbonate 聚苯乙烯polystyrene 丙烯酸树酯acrylic resin 乙烯基酯vinyl ester 橡胶内衬rubber lining 氯丁橡胶neoprene 沥青漆bitumen paint 环氧树脂漆epoxy resin paint 氧化锌底漆zinc oxide primer 防锈漆anti-rust paint 耐酸漆acid-resistant paint 耐碱漆alkali-resistant paint 水玻璃sodium silicate 树脂砂浆resin-bonded mortar 环氧树脂epoxy resin

building hardware 建筑五金钉子nails  螺纹屋面钉spiral-threaded roofing nail 环纹石膏板钉annular-ring gypsum board nail 螺丝screws  平头螺丝flat-head screw 螺栓bolt  普通螺栓commercial bolt 高强螺栓high strength bolt 预埋螺栓insert bolt 胀锚螺栓cinch bolt 垫片washer

paint 油漆底漆primer  防锈底漆rust-inhibitive primer 防腐漆anti-corrosion paint 调和漆mixed paint 无光漆flat paint 透明漆varnish 银粉漆aluminum paint 磁漆enamel paint  干性油drying oil 稀释剂thinner 焦油tar  沥青漆asphalt paint  桐油tung oil, chinese wood oil 红丹red lead 铅油lead oil 腻子putty

K

other architectural terms

其它建筑术语

discipline 专业建筑architecture

土木civil  给排水water supply and drainage 总图plot plan  采暖通风h.v.a.c (heating、ventilation and air conditioning) 电力供应electric power supply 电气照明electric lighting 电讯telecommunication 仪表instrument  热力供应heat power supply 动力mechanical power 工艺process technology 管道piping

conventional terms 一般通用名词建筑原理architectonics 建筑形式architectural style 民用建筑civil architecture 城市建筑urban architecture 农村建筑rural architecture 农业建筑farm building 工业建筑industrial building 重工业的heavy industrial 轻工业的light industrial 古代建筑ancient architecture 现代建筑modern architecture 标准化建筑standardized buildings 附属建筑auxiliary buildings 城市规划city planning 厂区内within site 厂区外offsite 封闭式closed type 开敞式open type半开敞式semi-open type 模数制modular system 单位造价unit cost 概算preliminary estimate 承包商constructor, contractor 现场site 扩建extension 改建reconstruction 防火fire-prevention  防震aseismatic, quake-proof 防腐anti-corrosion 防潮dump-proof 防水water-proof 防尘dust-proof 防锈rust-proof 车流量traffic volume 货流量freight traffic volume 人流量pedestrian volume 透视图perspective drawing 建筑模型building model

architectural physics 建筑物理照明illumination  照度degree of illumination 亮度brightness 日照sunshine  天然采光natural lighting 光强light intensity 侧光side light 顶光top light 眩光glaze 方位角azimuth 辐射radiation 对流convection 传导conduction 遮阳sun-shade 保温thermal insulation 恒温constant temperature 恒湿constant humidity 噪音noise 隔音sound-proof 吸音sound absorption 露点dew point 隔汽vapor-proof

name of professional role 职务名称项目经理project manager (pm) 设计经理design manager 首席建筑师principal architect 总工程师chief engineer 土木工程师civil engineer 工艺工程师process engineer 电气工程师electrical engineer 机械工程师mechanical engineer 计划工程师planning engineer 助理工程师assistant engineer 实习生probationer 专家specialist, expert 制图员draftsman 技术员technician

drafting 制图总说明general specification 工程说明project specification  采用标准规范目录list of standards and specification adopted 图纸目录list of drawings 平面图plan 局部放大图detail with enlarged scale 留孔平面图plan of provision of holes 剖面section 纵剖面longitudinal section 横剖面cross (transverse) section 立面elevation 正立面front elevation 透视图perspective drawing 侧立面side elevation 背立面back elevation 详图detail drawings 典型节点typical detail 节点号detail no. 首页front page  图纸目录及说明list of contents and description 图例legend 示意图diagram 草图sketch 荷载简图load diagram 流程示意图flow diagram 标准图standard drawing 地形图topographical map 土方工程图earth-work drawing 展开图developed drawing 模板图formwork drawing  配筋arrangement of reinforcement 表格tables  工程进度表working schedule  技术经济指标technical and economical index 建、构筑物一览表list of buildings and structures 编号coding 序列号serial no. 行和栏rows and columns 备注remarks 等级grade 直线straight line 曲线curves 曲折线zigzag line 虚线dotted line 实线solid line 影线hatching line 点划线dot and dash line 轴线axis  等高线contour line 中心线center line 双曲线hyperbola 抛物线parabola 切线tangent line 尺寸线dimension line 园形round 环形annular 方形square 矩形rectangle  平行四边形parallelogram 三角形triangle 五角形pentagon 六角形hexagon 八角形octagon 梯形trapezoid 圆圈circle 弓形sagment 扇形sector 球形的spherical 抛物面paraboloid 圆锥形cone  椭圆形ellipse, oblong 面积area 体积volume 容量capacity 重量weight 质量mass 力force 米meter 厘米centimeter 毫米millimeter 公顷hectate 牛顿/平方米newton/square meter 千克/立方米kilogram/cubic meter 英尺foot 英寸inch 磅pound 吨ton 加仑gallon 千磅kip  平均尺寸average dimension 变尺寸variable dimension 外形尺寸overall dimension 展开尺寸developed dimension 内径inside diameter 外径outside diameter 净重net weight 毛重gross weight 数量quantity 百分比percentage 净空clearance 净高headroom 净距clear distance 净跨clear span  截面尺寸sectional dimension 开间bay 进深depth 单跨single span 双跨double span 多跨multi-span 标高elevation, level 绝对标高absolute elevation 设计标高designed elevation 室外地面标高ground elevation 室内地面标高floor elevation  柱网column grid 坐标coordinate 厂区占地site area 使用面积usable area 辅助面积service area 通道面积passage area 管架pipe rack 管廊pipeline gallery 架空管线overhead pipeline 排水沟drain ditch 集水坑sump pit 喷泉fountain 地漏floor drain 消火栓fire hydrant 灭火器fire extinguisher  二氧化碳灭火器carbon dioxide extinguisher 卤代烷灭火器halon extinguisher

以上来源:建筑联盟(ID: archinet)

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